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BALOUCH HISTORY

 

Balouch is a nation consisting of 500 tribes, their tradition and commonly values are similar. They have united civilaizal society and they speak common language which is called Balouchi. nited civilaizal society and they speak common language which is called Balouchi. This language was driven from ancient Indo-Iranian language. Balouchi language also known as an ancient spoken language. It is pronounceless language spoken in accordance with tribes areas.

This nation lives in a vast land called Balouchistan located in easter part of Asia north of Gulf penisala occupied by three modern countries Iran, Pakistan and Afghanstan. The part which is taken by Iran Known as Iranian Balouchisatan. Zaidan is capital of it measuring in miles 69,487 sq miles.The second is located in west of Pakistan is known as Balouchistan. The capital is Quetta and it has 34,000 sq miles. The population of Balouchistan lacks specified record here by give the approximate figure which is 1,50,000.

 

"The history of the Baloch is, however, still in dark.  Research scholars have different opinions.  Some say they belong to the northern regions of Elburz, now inhabited by Ashkanis, originally Aryans.  Some historians maintain that they came from Halab, Allepe, and are Semites.  It is also believed that they from the old stock of Sumerians of Mesopotamia, while others regard the Baloch as the remnants of indigenous population of the area.  The historians, however, mostly concern themselves in tracing the Baloch racical origin either from among the Indo-Europeans or the Semites.  Neither should one object on these methods for historical research, nor doubt the fact that there had been an admixture of various people with Baloch like the Scythians, Pathians, Ashkanis, Sakas, Kushans, Huns, Turks and many others; nor contest the proposition that Baloch, culturally, were greatly influenced by Tigris-Euphrates civilization at different stages of history. " {Janmahmad}

 

"The origin of the word 'Baloch' is still unknown. E. Herzefeld believes that it is derived from brza-vaciya, which came from brza-vak, a Median word meaning a loud cry, in contrast to namravak, quiet, polite way of talking.  Some writers maintain that the Baloch owe their name to Babyloian King 'Belus', also the name of their God.  It is also believed that the word is anick-name meaning a `cock's comg`.  As the Baloch forces who fought against Astyages (585-550 B.C.) wore distinctive helmets decorated with a cock's comb, the name `Baloch' is said to have been derived from the token of cock.  Some writers believe that etymologically it is made of two Sankrit words, `Bal` and `Och`.  `Bal` means strength or power, and `Och`, high or magnificent.  The word `Baloch' therefore, means very powerful and magnificent.  Yet another erroneous version is that Baloch mean `nomad` or `wanderer`.  This has been presumed perhaps due to the innocent use of the word for nomadic people, and may be because of the fact that the term may be used by indigenous settlers for the Baloch nomads.

 

The first Baloch migration from the Caspian See region, most probably around 1200 B.C., must have been motivated by this general historical phenomenon.  They first settled in northern Persia.  We have the authority of Persion poet, Firdousi (935-1020 A.D.) and also strong historical evidences that the Baloch were a political and military force during the times of Cyrus and Combyses.

 

However, the Baloch movement from Kirman and Seisran to Makkuran and then Eastern Balochistan was not the only result of the lack of sufficient productive forces to meet their demands, or insufficient grazing fields for their flocks, because the area they migrated to was no better in natural resources than the area in which they had been settled for centuries.  The main reason was their conflict with rulers and their own internal enmity which resulted in a weakening of their political position.  yet another factor most probably was the Mongolian invasion of Central Asia and the subsequent political anarchy in the whole region.

 

From the evidences available, it is establiched that by the beginning of the Christian era, the Baloch were one of the major people inhabiting Iranian Balochistan, Seistan and Kirman.  Their migration further east into Makkuran must also be the result of Anushervan's (531-578 A.D.) attack on them. But according to some Iegends, it was at a later stage and was the result of a quarrel between the Kirman ruler and the Baloch Chief who was the successor to the most powerful leader, Ismael Romi.   The former demanded forty-four girls, one from each Baloch tribe, for his harem.   The Baloch dressed up boys in girls' disguise and, fearing the wrath of the ruler, migrated from Kirman and took refuge in Makkuran.

 

The Kurds

The Baloch have always been referred by the ancient chroniclers with Koch who appear to be the original inhabitants of Balochistan before the Baloch arrival and also with Kurds.  Many ethnologists believe that the Kurds belong to the Median branch of Aryan tribes who were mixed up with many people of indigenous origin and later invaders including Semites, Armenians and Turkomans.

 

The Kurds have been living in Kurdish region and Zagros area since the Semitic conquest of Assyria.  They are said to have posed a permanent nuisance for the weak rulers of Assyria by organizing raids on Tigris mainland.  In a Sumerian inscription dated 2000 B.C.  a country known as Kardala is mentioned; and afterwards the Assyrian King, Tiglath Pileser, (circa 745-724 B.C.) appears to have fought a tribe referred as Kur-ti-e.  Xenophon (circa 434-355 B.C.) also speaks of Kardukai, a mountain-folk who harassed his march towards the sea.  Some archaeological evidences tend to show a Kurdish kingdom which flourished in the second millennium B.C. on the borders of the Semitic empire in Babylonia.  In a later period, the Kurds cavalry seved as the vanguard of Cyrus army in capturing Babylonia in 539 B.C.

 

The Kurds are from the same origin as that of Baloch. The period of their migration from the Caspian region may be a few centuries earlier than the Baloch who followed at a later period; but instead of going to their people in Zagros mountainous region, outskirts of Mesopotamia, they headed towards east.   Linguistically and culturally they must have been from the same stock." [ Janmahmad; The Baloch Cultural Heritage, 1982]